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Women in the Vietnam War were active in a large variety of roles, making ificant impacts on the War and with the War having ificant impacts on them. Several million Vietnamese women served in the military and in militias during the War, particularly in the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam also known as the Viet Congwith the slogan "when war comes, even the women must fight" being widely used. Civilian women also had ificant impacts during the War, with women workers taking on more roles in the economy and Vietnam seeing an increase in legal women's rights.

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However, women still faced ificant levels of discrimination during and after the War and were often targets of sexual violence and war crimes. There is relatively little data about female Vietnam War veterans.

The Northern Vietnam government, lead by Ho Chi Minhmade a of legal reforms in order to gain popularity and enhance social equitysuch as new laws banning wife-beatingforced marriages and child marriages. As a result of this, North Vietnamese women were seen as essential participants, and were enlisted into the Viet Cong for the purposes of combat and manual labour, such as attacking and harassing American troops, being sent into the combat zone to lay booby-trapsand working as truck drivers and smugglers. Viet Cong women also played important roles in espionage against the Americans and the South Vietnamese as well as serving as liaisons to coordinate North Vietnamese squ and covertly pass information.

However, despite those ideals of equality and that enthusiasm, discrimination against women was still rife throughout the war. Most of the women serving in South Vietnam were trained as nurses and government office clerks. Inafter the Tet Offensive, the South Vietnamese National Assembly saw debate on a bill that would've introduced a draft for all women aged 18 to 25, however the bill failed to pass.

That year, the People's Self-Defense Force was created as a local part-time militia and byover one million women would serve in it, with at least in combat roles and with some undertaking Airborne School training.

North Vietnamese women played an important role in the creation and maintenance of the Ho Chi Minh trailwhich the United States National Security Agency called "one of the great achievements of military engineering of the 20th century" for its effectiveness in supplying troops in the south despite being the target of one of the most intense air interdiction campaigns in history.

The Youth Shock Brigadeswho mostly operated along the Ho Chi Minh trail, saw large influxes of tens of thousands of young women and teenage girl recruits, leading to the Brigades being majority female during the War.

The war was basically run without anyone taking into consideration the particular physical and cultural specificity of women at war; in fact it was largely neglected, underestimated, or downright forgotten. In other words, the benefits of the victory of went to men alone. Women made a ificant contribution to North Vietnamese espionage efforts.

A paper from the Intelligence and National Security journal noted that "the depiction of Vietnamese women as spies is rare in memoirs, fiction, or even film" but that "the communist women were indeed a key to victory. Northern spies were able to gather information in a range of different ways, including through the markets the so-called "market mouth"by recruiting teenagers to eavesdrop on their families, and by infiltrating military bases. One spy, Nguyen Thi Le On, who had been arrested and eventually incorrectly deemed not a communist by the South Vietnamese police, pretended to have gone mad from the torture she endured, at which point Southern troops freely told her sensitive information out of pity for a harmless old woman.

The NLF, however, tended to discourage sex in espionage, such as seducing potential sources, both Woman want nsa Dickey of concern for traditional gender norms and to uphold the Woman want nsa Dickey of Ho Chi Minh, who was described as the "celibate Woman want nsa Dickey only to the cause of revolution".

Both South and North Vietnamese women served as active combatants during the war, particularly in the National Liberation Front due to promises of female equality and a greater social role within society. They spread rumors through the Market Mouth — women hunkering behind their wares, buying and selling, bartering and chatting, and sending and receiving undercover messages — that armed men returning from the North were preparing to strike. The rumors were pure invention. The women, who had no weapons, carved bamboo stems to look like guns.

They tied up their hair so they would resemble men. At twilight on January 2,the women encircled a U. They set off firecrackers, which exploded like gunfire as the women darted this way and that, imitating soldiers attacking, their palm-stem guns silhouetted in the smoke-filled dusk. Already frightened by the false rumors that had spread through the markets, the ARVN soldiers fled, tossing aside their weapons. Using lightning strikes, Mme. A of female fighters gained reputations for their accomplishments on the battlefield.

The Viet Cong sniper and interrogator known as Apache gained notoriety as a high-priority American target due to her leadership of a sniper platoon and her brutality in torturing prisoners. In the South Vietnamese Rangersmaster sergeant and medic Ho Thi Que achieved notoriety for her prowess in combat, with the Chicago Tribune noting that "she fought beside the men with a pair of.

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Women played a vital role in recruitment and propaganda efforts for North Vietnam. The women working on the Trail were also used for morale efforts. The military decided that they would recruit women who had been youth volunteers before to drive truck lo of soldiers up and down the Ho Chi Minh trail while American pilots were dropping bombs from the sky. The purpose of this was to show the male soldiers that if women can do it, you can stick it out [51].

Yet, the Republic of Vietnam failed to do much more than subsidize beautiful female Bob Hope-USO style recruitment entertainers and create a small token female force, the little-known Tiger Battalion, which never saw combat. A Woman want nsa Dickey civilian Vietnamese women served as volunteers for the Red CrossCatholic Relief Services or other humanitarian organisations.

Civilian women in South Vietnam were also able to gain employment as a hooch maidcleaning and housekeeping for American soldiers. In response to the War, the North Vietnamese government promoted the Three Responsibilities movement. This movement called for women to step in agricultural production, to take over the running of their households when husbands went off to fight, and to local militias to aid the defence of their villages. The War also saw a of changes to legislation of women's rights.

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However, the large majority of leadership positions on those councils were still held by men, and the percentage of women councillors dropped ificantly after the end of the war. During the war over one million rural people migrated or fled the fighting in the South Vietnamese countryside to the cities, especially Saigon. Among the internal refugees were many young women who became the ubiquitous "bar girls" of wartime South Vietnam, "hawking her wares—be that cigarettes, liquor, or herself" to American and allied soldiers.

The growth in prostitution not just in Vietnam, but in surrounding countries where American troops were based, was often encouraged by American military leadership, with American military commanders having a say in brothel operations, with women working as prostitutes openly granted access onto military bases to work, American military doctors checking women for venereal disease, and with little efforts made to ensure that women working as prostitutes were legally adults.

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William Fulbright once complained that South Vietnam had become "America's brothel. After the War and the reunification of Vietnam, the Vietnamese government cracked down heavily on prostitution, including criminalising it entirely and sending prostitutes to rehabilitation centres. A ificant of war crimes were committed during the Vietnam War and violence targeted specifically towards women, especially sexual violence, was widespread.

One infamous and horrific attack on civilian women occurred in March — the My Lai massacre. Over unarmed men, women and children were mercilessly slain in the hamlet of Sorn Tinh South Vietnam by American Soldiers. Women and young girls were first raped and tortured by groups of American soldiers before being killed. The portrayal of rape and violence against women in popular media about the Vietnam War has faced criticism, both for centering American men instead of the Vietnamese women who were raped and for minimising the horror of the violence. Karen Stuhldreher of the University of Washington, Seattle, has argued that in popular portrayals of the War "the line between sex and violence Woman want nsa Dickey blurred" and that "the motivation provided by the narratives noticeably highlights the sexual.

Over 11 women served in the American military during the War, the majority of who were military trained, graduate nurses. Insixteen Air Force nurses arrived in Vietnam. Working conditions as a nurse were often hard, with many nurses working a minimum of 12 hours a day, six days a week, in field hospitals that had little air conditioning.

Any nurse who has served in any war zone would tell you that. We were their emotional support system. We were their mother, their wife, their girlfriend, their sister. You listened a lot, did a lot of hand-holding, comforting. American nurses were also often expected to conform to a certain level of femininity, with Officer, Nurse, Woman: The Army Nurse Corps in the Vietnam War author Kara Dixon Vuic stating that: "She might have been a progressive nurse, specialized, and treated equally, but she was still needed for her touch, smile, and reassuring beauty.

She was still needed to restore a sense of domesticity to the troops Women who ed the military had long faced stereotypes and rumors about their sexuality, and so military leaders wanted to offer a positive image of nurses that would assure young women and their families that ing the military would be a positive move.

Inthe American Department of Defence rescinded a policy that discharged women who got pregnant after Susan Struck, a nurse serving in Vietnam, sued over her dismissal, being represented by American Civil Liberties Union lawyer Ruth Bader Ginsburg. In Februarythe Pan Am airline secured an exclusive contract with the American government to operate rest and recreation flights for American soldiers in Vietnam. Unlike the male pilots of the flights, the flight attendants did not receive hazardous-duty pay. Our stewardess uniforms were made of fabric that was supposed to be "all weather," which really meant that it was too hot in summer and too thin in winter.

Add to that the fact that we were still required to wear stockings and girdles, and I think you can imagine our discomfort. We worked hard to make our military passengers happy with meals of steak, milk and ice cream. We wanted to help the war effort and the young men who were, for a few short hours, in our care. We chatted, mailed letters, listened to tales of lovers left behind and comrades felled by sniper fire from an unseen enemy.

We ignored the fact that most of the men would seek comfort in women forced into prostitution by poverty and sexism. The military even supported this, enlisting an American expat to build a hotel and brothel in Singapore. We were deluding ourselves that a steak and a few kind words could ever make up Woman want nsa Dickey the waste of life, the pain, the young men exploited for cannon fodder. A of women also served as flight attendants with the Flying Tiger Line.

The only servicewoman who was a nurse that was killed in action was First Lieutenant Sharon Lane ; [] the rest died in accidents and illnesses. Lane died from a shrapnel wound after her hospital was hit by an enemy rocket in Chu Lai. Women played a ificant role in anti-war movements, despite facing sexism in those movements and sometimes being relegated to second-class status within organizations. However, participation in antiwar groups allowed women to gain experience with organizing protests and crafting effective antiwar rhetoric. Women also ificant roles in general anti-war groups, such as the Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars.

In Australia ina group of fifteen Woman want nsa Dickey in Sydney founded Save Our Sons to oppose conscription into the Australian military. In Canada, the anti-nuclear Canadian Voice of Women for Peace lobbied the Canadian government to launch peace initiatives against the War. In Februarythey met with Paul Martin Sr.

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